Canada is the world's 2nd largest country after Russia. It was explored by the British and French towards the end of the 15th century, and gradually settled by them. It became a Federal Dominion in 1867. It is a parliamentary democracy, a member of the British Commonwealth, with the Queen as titlular Head of State, but since 1931 it has been a fully independent and sovereign nation. It has 10 provinces and 3 territories, and two official languages, namely French and English.
French-Canadian composer Calixa Lavallée wrote the tune for the Canadian national Anthem "O Canada".